Alberto Frigerio

Date and place of birth: 31 August 1984, Melzo (Mi), Italy


09/2011 - 12/2011

Research period abroad at Maritime Archaeological Research Institute (MARIS), Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden


05/2010 - Now

PhD student in Management and Development of Cultural Heritage at "IMT Alti Studi di Lucca".


09/2006 - 03/2009

Specialization degree in International Relations at "Università degli studi di Milano".

Final thesis: "The international preservation of cultural properties in the event of armed conflicts" (in italian).

Final mark: 110/110.


09/2003 - 12/2006

Three years degree in International Science and European Institutions at "Università degli studi di Milano".

Final thesis: "The condemn of colonialism. From Bandung to the XV session of the UN General Assembly" (in italian).

Final mark: 100/110


08/2005 - 01/2006

Erasmus experience at Södertörn Högskola, Huddinge, Sweden.



04/2009 - 11/2009

Collaboration with the review as analyst of international relations and geopolitics. Main activities: writing of articles and analysis regarding several topics connected with the African continent (economic, political, juridical and social aspects). I have written 16 articles and I have been interviewed three times by 'Afriradio' (Kwanza).


09/2007 - 11/2007

Internship at the Italian Trade Commission (ICE), office of Los Angeles (USA). Main activities: during this experience I have worked in the drawing up of an essay concerning the development of the Alaska's economy; rather I have cooperated with the staff in the carrying out of different activities of information, assistance and promotion of various fields (biotechnologies and nanotechnologies, Italian movies, Italian marble).



Alberto Frigerio, "Il quadro giuridico del Titanic a 100 anni dalla tragedia", Aedon, review of arts and law on line, n°1-2 - 2012, editor Il Mulino,;

Alberto Frigerio, "Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage: A Framework for Transforming Divergent Interests into Convergent Opportunities" (not published yet);

Alberto Frigerio, "From the Past to the Future: the Promotion of Underwater Cultural Heritage through Advanced Technologies", Eva 2011 Florence, Pitagora Editrice Bologna, Aprile 2011;

Alberto Frigerio, "L'entrata in vigore in Italia della Convenzione UNESCO 2001 sulla protezione del patrimonio culturale subacqueo", Aedon, review of arts and law on line, n°2 - 2010, editor Il Mulino,;



2nd MARIS PhD-researchers networks workshop, Presentation of the article: Alberto Frigerio, "Public Awarness and Interest toward the Underwater Cultural Heritage: a survey-game to test common knowledge", Helsinki (Finland), University of Helsinki, 18-20 November 2011; 

IKUWA 4, Presentation of the article: Alberto Frigerio, "The clash of interests in the management of the underwater cultural heritage", IKUWA 4, Zadar (Croatia), University of Zadar, 29 September - 02 October 2011; 

Eva 2011 Florence, Presentation of the article: Alberto Frigerio, "From the Past to the Future: the Promotion of Underwater Cultural Heritage through Advanced Technologies", Eva 2011 Florence (Electronic Imaging & the Visual Arts), Florence, Grand Hotel Minerva, 4-6 May 2011; 


Research Interest

My main interest is the management of cultural heritage, both from a legal and a managerial perspective. Currently I am working on the management of the underwater cultural heritage. 

My research project is entitle: "The underwater cultural heritage: a comparative analysis of international perspectives, laws and methods of management". The idea is to offer a more clear vision of the impact of each of the several interests that affect the management of underwater cultural heritage, both from a juridical as well as a managerial point of view. This analysis should facilitate the discovered of new opportunities able to transform divergent interests into convergent opportunities, offering the best solution in terms of protection and promotion.
My plan could be divided in three parts.
The aim of the first part is mainly to put the bases and to define the concept that afterwards are going to be analyzed. Starting from the definition of underwater cultural heritage, I’ll explain the importance and the appealing of these goods and then I’ll focus my attention on the research, definition and analysis of the different values, threats and interests. Then I'll identify the stakeholders connected with the underwater cultural heritage and I'll try to understand which are their interests. In the last part of this section I’ll try to explain which are the main differences between the underwater cultural heritage and the cultural properties found on land.
In the second part I’ll focus my attention on the juridical perspective, considering the development in the international community of common rules and laws and the debate about them. In particular I will study the passage from the Convention of Montego Bay (1982) to the UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. After a deep analysis of the article of the 2001 Convention and its Annex, I’ll consider the main critics to the Convention and I’ll propose a comparative analysis between the 2001 Convention, from one hand, and the Law of Finds and the Salvage Law on the other hand. I’ll conclude this second part considering the answer to the critics and offering final theoretical-juridical considerations about the clash of interests that affect the management of the underwater cultural heritage. In addiction I'll try to give an answer to these two fundamental questions: what about the clash between ownership and jurisdiction on the underwater cultural heritage? what is the future of the salvage companies concerning the recovery of underwater cultural properties?
In the third part I’ll consider the practical management of underwater cultural heritage, analyzing the solutions provided and suggested. First of all I’ll study the management of underwater cultural properties through the museums above water. This solution is often considered the best one in terms of protection, promotion and access. The Vasa museum of Stockholm represents the best example of this kind of museum, considering that it is the most visited museum in Scandinavia and the world most visited maritime museum. Other example (but with a different impact on the local society) could be: the Arqua, Museo Nacional de Arquelogía Subacuática, the Australian National Maritime Museum or the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. Secondly I’ll consider the promotion of scuba-diving tour as solution that permits a conservation in situ of underwater cultural heritage. In this case the Underwater Archaeological Park of Baia can be considered as a good case of analysis. Other example could be the Florida’s “Museum in the Sea”, the Roatan Underwater Museum or the Underwater Archeological Park of Caesarea. Thirdly I’ll evaluate the possibility to construct an underwater museum like the Alexandria Underwater Museum’s plan or the Baiheliang Underwater Museum of Chogqing. Then I would like to consider other two aspects: the use of new technologies for the protection and promotion of underwater cultural heritage, such as the Archeomar project or the VENUS project, and the development of new partnership between maritime museums and other institutions (like, for example, aquariums). Then I’ll conclude with practical-managerial consideration about the clash of  interests that affect the management of the underwater cultural heritage and I´ll propose a model of management for such heritage.